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The Second Estate consisted of the French nobility, which numbered about 400,000 people. For example, the winter of 1788 was the coldest in decades which froze and ruined stores of grain and other food items. They wanted equal taxation and rights for all classes. The French Revolution stirred the British people and affected their literature in a major way. There are two main points of view with regard to cultural change as a cause of the French Revolution: the direct influence of Enlightenment ideas on French citizens, meaning that they valued the ideas of liberty and equality discussed by Rousseau and Voltaire et al, or the indirect influence of the Enlightenment insofar as it created a "philosophical society". Answer: Causes of the French Revolution: Despotic rule of Louis XVI: He became the ruler of France in 1774. Government should be about the people. For example, they were exempt from paying many taxes and were allowed to collect dues from the peasants. This was a terrible blow to the old enemy of France, England, but also to the finan… This would help the Third Estate because they have the most delegates (97% of population). The wars against many powerful European countries had left the country in a great debt that was even increased by the expenses of the crown. The causes: Political: France was a monarchy that was being run by the Kings for centuries. For example, John Locke argued that a leader may only govern a society if he has the consent of those he is governing. However, looking back on the process and cause of revolution is efficient way to think about current socioeconomic structure. When we think about French-revolution, we tend to just focus on the fact that it occurred. The next major cause of the French Revolution was the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI and resentment that French citizens felt towards the authority of the king. French society was divided into three types of society :-) 1 first estate Social Cause 3. The third estate was forced to pay heavy taxed while the other two did not and many in the peasant class felt as though they were being crushed by the clergy and nobility. Similar to other absolute monarchs, Louis XVI ruled France based on the principles of hereditary rules and divine right of kings. The French monarchy was financially in trouble since the end of the reign of Louis XIV, the Sun-King, in 1715. Tithes are one-tenth of a person’s income which is formally taken in support of the church and clergy. The shortage of food, especially after the agrarian crisis of 1788 and 1789, generated a popular discontent: the plebeians mainly ate bread to survive. #1 Social Inequality in France due to the Estates System. New ideas on society from the Age of Enlightenment caused citizens from the third estate to begin to question the estates system and this helped lead to the outbreak of the revolution. People wanted to become a democracy and it doubled their debt. The first estate: clergy or the leaders of the Catholic church. Why should France have never gotten involved with the American Revolution? Financial Condition: Another cause of the French Revolution was the condition of the finances of the … All other people in France, about 98% of the population belonged to the Third Estate. He accepted to be a constitutional monarch and gave a charter to the people. Causes of the French Revolution 1. International: struggle for hegemony and Empire outstrips the fiscal resources of the state 2. Each of these three Enlightenment thinkers questioned the traditional authority of an absolute monarch and argued against the rigid class divisions of feudalism, or the estates-system, present in France. This group included: merchants, lawyers, poor laborers, and ordinary peasants. #1 Social Inequality in France due to the Estates System In the 1780s, the population of France was around 24 million and 700 thousand and it was divided into three estates. Though initially it suffered various reverses, France, under the leadership of Napoleon B… The first of the general causes … These three topics out of the five that I choose have been appealing to me because I see this in today’s world. #4 Ideas put forward by Enlightenment philosophers. What was expanding? The main cause of the french revolution. Assess the view that the Enlightenment had been the main cause of the French Revolution. 2 privileges and burdens of French society. For his part, Rousseau argued against all class divisions in society, which caused French citizens to question the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI and the unequal nature of the estates-system. Third Estate called themselves this. The French Revolution did not occur on a whim, for the nation’s instability had been a growing problem throughout the years leading up to the revolution. They resented the power of the Church and the nobility. Absolutism was becoming an increasingly unpopular form of government at the time. were ones of vast, unexpected change and confusion. The political system of France before the French Revolution was called the "Ancien Regime." The Enlightenment ideas were particularly popularised by the influence of the American War of Independence on the soldiers who returned, and of Benjamin Franklinhi… Revolutionary France was considered dangerous by the other European monarchies who viewed it with both fear and anger. Major Causes Of The French Revolution 1607 Words | 7 Pages. Much more than a change of the political regime, it turned the French society upside-down in all its dimensions. What were the main causes of the French Revolution? The French Revolution resulted from two state crises which emerged during the 1750s–80s, one constitutional and one financial, with the latter providing a 'tipping point' in 1788/89 when desperate action by government ministers backfired and unleashed a revolution against the 'Ancien Regime. Enlightenment ideas, Economic Troubles, Weak Leader, Meeting of the Estates General, National Assembly, and Tennis Court Oath. Some causes of the French Revolution were absolute monarchy, corrupt leadership, unfair land distribution, unfair tax code, rigid social class structure, government fiances, poor harvests, King Louis's failure to accept reforms, and formation of the National Assembly. Bankers eventually refused to lend anymore money. However, there have been historical debates over the major contributing factor that had caused the French Revolution. #5 Financial Crisis caused due … The deeper causes for its collapse are more difficult to establish. Causes. The monarch was able to maintain absolute control over the society with the addition of feudalism, which involved people being placed into different estates of power, such as: clergy, nobility and peasants. There was a complete break with the Age of Reason and a new kind of literature known as the Romantic Revival came into exist with the publication of Lyrical Ballad (1798). The most important causes of the French Revolution were the nation's debt, the refusal of the nobility and the clergy to pay taxes, egalitarian philosophies, and high food costs. Another . Also, each Estate met in a different room. What were the main causes of the French Revolution? Due to the deregulation of the grain market, the cost of bread increased and people were hungry and desperate. Consequently, the national debt increased beyond limit. The absolutism of the monarchy, particularly pronounced since Louis XIV, was criticised. One of the changes was the decline of the power of the nobles, which had a severe impact on the loyalty of some of the nobles to King Louis XVI. The French Revolution had general causes common to all the revolutions of the West at the end of the 18th century and particular causes that explain why it was by far the most violent and the most universally significant of these revolutions. How did Louis try to fix this? He realized that the restoration of old order was impossible. There are two main points of view with regard to cultural change as a cause of the French Revolution: the direct influence of Enlightenment ideas on French citizens, meaning that they valued the ideas of liberty and equality discussed by Rousseau and Voltaire et al, or the indirect influence of the Enlightenment insofar as it created a "philosophical society". More specifically, in the decade before the outbreak of the revolution France experienced drastic shifts in the weather that negatively effected the food production of the country. The most important causes of the French Revolution were the nation's debt, the refusal of the nobility and the clergy to pay taxes, egalitarian philosophies, and high food costs. The ideals of liberty and equality, that were needed to overthrow Louis XVI, emerged first from the writings of important and influential thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment. Political Cause 2. 3. For the cost of his regular extravagant expenses, he increased taxes which were paid by the third estate. The estate to which a person belonged was very important because it determined that person’s rights, obligations and status. Each Estate only gets one vote which isn't fair because if it was a democracy, each delegate should get one vote. Historians generally view the underlying causes of the French Revolution as driven by the failure of the Ancien Régime ' to respond to increasing social and economic inequality. The Enlightenment occurred during the 18th century, in the decades before the 1789 outbreak of the revolution and although the Enlightenment took place many years before the outbreak of the French Revolution, its ideas and achievements still had a profound effect on the French Revolution. Specifically, the writings of John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Baron de Montesquieu greatly influenced the revolutionaries in France. Before the outbreak of the French Revolution, the political, social, and economic conditions were bad, but no revolution in the world ever takes place for any single cause. The French Revolution of 1789-1799 was one of the most important events in the history of the world. What were the main causes of the French Revolution? Political conflict: conflict between the Monarchy and the nobility over the “reform” of the tax system led to paralysis and bankruptcy. Usually a person remained in one estate for his or her lifetime, and any movement from upwards in the estate system could take many generations. Absolutism and privilege were key factors in the French Revolution. Major Causes There wasn't one event or condition that led to the French Revolution, but, rather, a number of factors came together to cause a perfect storm leading to the revolt of the people against the king. Held at Versailles which was one cause for debt (so expensive to build), Louis did not create debt but inherited most of it and created some of it. Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey, Byron, Shelley and Keats were the poets who specialised in this style of poetry. The major cause of the French Revolution was the disputes between the different types of social classes in French society. The First Estate was the Roman Catholic clergy… Third Estate wanted to change the government. He is known as one of the most influential people of the French… How did the French Revolution end the Enlightenment Period? For example, on the 8th of June in 1783 the Laki volcano in Iceland erupted and sent ash high into the atmosphere which spread across the skies of Europe. Western Civilization: French Revolution, Fascism in Italy, Nazi Regime Sherly Familia EUH 2001 Professor Miller December 13, 2017 French Revolution Many causes and significances led to the commence of the French Revolution. Finally, Montesquieu advocated for a system of government based on a separation of powers with three branches of government, including: executive branch, legislative branch and judicial branch. People starved. Queen had poor advice and interfered in government which was bad because she was a member of the royal family in Austria who is France's enemy (married to Louis as a peace treaty). There were several causes for French Revolution, among them are: Economic: the main causes within the sphere of the economy were the fiscal deficit, the economic crisis, the debt owed by the State and the rise in prices without product control. The causes of the French Revolution . An absolute monarchy is a form of government that involved society being ruled over by an all-powerful king or queen. Louis XVI was fond of waging wars and took active part in many wars. Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette spent a lot of money. France itself experienced another series of poor harvests in 1787 and 1788 with extreme winters. Some historians regard that it was the economic causes which fanned the flames of revolution in France. Posted on February 24, 2014 by joseliriano. The Church had many privileges, including the collection of tithes. This caused the masses to revolt and create riots. The French Revolution of 1789-1799 was one of the most important events in the history of the world. As a result, the winter of 1784 was severe in Europe and the following summers included extreme droughts that caused poor harvests and famine. Rapid population growth and restrictions caused by the inability to adequately finance government debt resulted in economic depression, unemployment and high food prices. These factors destabilized society and increased the political influence of the commoners. The tottering economic structure of France was also one of the reasons for the outbreak of the revolution. The monarch had complete control over all aspects of the society, including: political power, economics, and all forms of authority. Another reason that the revolution started was an economic crisis in the monarchical government. The French Revolution of 1789 was inarguably a significant turning point in the history of Europe. The three main causes of French revolution are as follows: 1. 'In addition to these, there was the growth of the bourgeoisie, a social order whose new wealth, … He wanted to make everyone happy (hid from his problems). He had drained the financial resources of France in wars. The years before the French Revolution (which started in 1789 AD.) CAUSES. The nobles owned about 20% of the land and had many feudal privileges. Borrowed money from bankers for American Revolutionaries in their war against Great Britain (DOUBLED THEIR DEBT). Here are the 10 major causes of the French Revolution. What were the lofty goals of those who supported the French Revolution? The Revolution led to many changes in France, which at the time of the Revolution was the most powerful state in Europe. The lofty goals of those who supported it were "Life, Liberty, Fraternity". These three factors each played an important role in the French Revolution, which led to the fall of the old regime. #3 The Rise of the Bourgeoisie. I believe the main causes of the French revolution were absolutism and privilege, famine, and economics. The Causes of the French Revolution: Social, Economical, Political There is something unique about the Revolution. The clergy was divided in that the higher church positions, like bishops, were held by members of the nobility, while positions in lower clergy were often held by members of the peasant class. He was born into the throne...didn't want the hardships of being king. New views about power and authority, inspired by the American Revolution, demand equality, liberty, and democracy (from Rousseau/Voltaire). Why was the government in debt? #2 Tax Burden on the Third Estate. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The French Revolution (1789–1799) Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays. The kings Louis XV and Louis XVI did not manage to stop the wars campaigns despite of their proclaimed will of peace. France - France - The causes of the French Revolution: In an immediate sense, what brought down the ancien régime was its own inability to change or, more simply, to pay its way. The French Revolution of 1789-1799 was one of the most important events in the history of the world. 1. International: struggle for hegemony and Empire outstrips the fiscal resources of the state. These factors destabilized society and increased the political influence of the commoners. Third Estate was starving, very poor, and already pay 50% of their earnings. The French Revolution is not only a significant event in the history of Europe but of the entire world. The deeper causes for its collapse are more difficult to establish. the start of the French Revolution were fired. The first cause is budget deficit problems. ...The major causes of the French Revolution were the disputes and inequalities between the different types of social classes in French society, and the financial problems, facing the French government, during the year of 1779. The Main Causes Of The French Revolution 1174 Words | 5 Pages. The National Assembly met at the Tennis Court and they refused to leave until they had drawn out the new constitution. The Main causes of French Revolution are :-) 1 despotic rules of king Louis XVI:-) due to financial crisis King Louis XVI forced to increase taxes which was mostly paid by the people of third state which create a tension in society. The Revolution led to many changes in France, which at the time of the Revolution, was the most powerful state in Europe. In fact, images produced at the time display the burden that the top two estates placed on the third estate. Maximilien Robespierre was a lawyer-turned-politician. The next major cause of the French Revolution was the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI and resentment that French citizens felt towards the authority of the king. This model of government directly challenged the authority of the king because it involved his power being divided into three parts and others gaining more authority. Causes for the Revolution in 1830: The congress of Vienna restored Louis-XVIII as the king of France. Louis borrowed money from other kings. In fact, the ideas of many Enlightenment thinkers were commonly discussed and debated in the salons of France, in which intellectuals and would gather to discuss the ideas of the day. When people revolted against the French crown, not only did they succeeded in forming a new French republic, they spread the tendrils of revolution to other European monarchies. 2. Interesting Facts about the Causes of the French Revolution The commoners resented a tax on salt called the "gabelle." #1 Social Inequality in France due to the Estates System. What was the down side to this? #5 Financial Crisis caused due … The major cause of the French Revolution was the disputes between the different types of social classes in French society. Recent study shows two main causes of revolution. This was the first movement towards the French Revolution. The peasant class of France worked the fields and depended on the production of yearly grain harvests for their subsistence. What were the Enlightenment ideas? All of these hardships were felt the most by the poorest in French society. In the 1780’s the population of France numbered about 24,700,000, and it was divided into three estates. Enlightenment ideas, Economic Troubles, Weak Leader, Meeting of the Estates General, National Assembly, and Tennis Court Oath. This idea caused people to question the legitimacy of Louis XVI to rule when he did not have the support of many of the citizens within France. Their questioning of authority and the role of the government inspired the revolutionaries, and ordinary citizens, of France. It was a process of years that many factors greatly contributed. By 1789, the estates system had begun to anger the citizens of the third estate as they resented their position within French society. Causes of the French Revolution. Louis was not happy with the National Assembly so he locked them out of the meeting room (put a note on the door that said it was closed for cleaning). It was to figure out how to deal with the crisis and who to tax. 1. These people made up 1% of the They needed salt to flavor and preserve their food. Proclaimed the end of absolute monarchy and beginning of representative government. #4 Ideas put forward by Enlightenment philosophers. The ideas of the intellectuals of the Enlightenment brought new views to government and society. They pitted the French Republic against Great Britain, Austria andseveral other monarchies. This is the period before the French Revolution and is a time known as the Ancien Regime. The nobility occupied most of the powerful positions in the army, Church and government. Where was the Meeting of the Estates General held? They paid most of the taxes collected by the government but were generally looked down upon by the nobility. Also, the Church did not pay land taxes, even though it owned about 6% of the land and was very wealthy. Production and Trade were expanding but the burden of taxes made it hard to conduct business profitably. The causes of the French revolution that I thought that were interesting to me were inequalities in Society, Enlightenment ideas, financial crisis. This led to theFrench Revolutionary Wars, a series of military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802. The American Revolution also influenced the coming of the French Revolution. The fourth major cause of the French Revolution was the impact that weather conditions had on the French crops in the years immediately before the outbreak of the revolution. The overall course and account of French Revolution can be divided into three areas, the causes of the revolution, the course of events that took place in the entire sequence of activities, followed by the outcomes and consequences of the revolution. What was the Meeting of the Estates General? The French Revolution of 1789 had many long-range causes. Here are the 10 major causes of the French Revolution. #2 Tax Burden on the Third Estate. For example, Louis XVI became King of France in 1774 when his grandfather Louis XV died. As the spring approached and the snow melted, many areas of France flooded and led to worse harvests, as farmers struggled with fields that were under water. It began when France, anticipating an attack, declared war on Prussia and Austria in the spring of 1792. There are many factors that explain the Revolution, but I will try to synthesize the causes, as requested, into six main ones. #3 The Rise of the Bourgeoisie. Burden of taxes upset nobility and Cost of living increased. Hereditary rule meant that the monarch received their position due to their birth and as one in a long family line of monarchs. One school of interpretation maintains that French society under the ancien régime was rent by class war. As well, medieval European absolute monarchs included the practise of divine right of kings, meaning that the monarch derived his or her power from god. France - France - The causes of the French Revolution: In an immediate sense, what brought down the ancien régime was its own inability to change or, more simply, to pay its way. They passed laws in the name of the French people. The clergy included people such as: monks, nuns, parish priests and bishops. They called themselves the National Assembly. Bad weather caused crop failure which lead to shortage of grain=price of bread doubled. Political, social, and economic conditions in France contributed to the discontent felt by many French people-especially those of the third estate. Enlightenment period ended because the french revolution went so poorly. The second major cause of the French Revolution is the history of the estates system in France. An absolute monarchy is a form of government that involved society being ruled over by an all-powerful king or queen. Louis XVI was indecisive, paid little attention to government advisers, and had little patience. France was experiencing a great famine at that time. In 1778, Louis XVI decided to support the American Revolution. Causes of the French Revolution 1) Hard economic times --Foreign wars created huge debt --Peasants were responsible for paying the debt 2) The inequity of the 3 Estates --What are they? This furthered the power of a monarch because it ensured that the king or queen did not get their power from the people, and therefore the people had not control or say over the monarch’s rule. The reason they did this was because they hated the old way of things and wanted it to change. Louis' solution was to impose taxes on the Second Estate (nobility) because he reached his limit on taxing the Third Estate. The Main Causes of French Revolution. The main social cause of the French Revolution was the high population density in the country. One school of interpretation maintains that French society under the ancien régime was rent by class war. As well, heavy snow blocked roads and made transportation incredibly difficult across the country. What was Louis' solution about France's debt? Overpopulation caused an unrelenting strain on natural resources in the country, and this led to a number of complications that eventually gave rise to the revolution. Again, this idea caused French citizens to begin to question the authority of their own king and to begin to think of other ways of government. The First Estate was made up of the Roman Catholic clergy who numbered about 100,000 in the 1780’s. Here are the 10 major causes of the French Revolution. After nearly a decade of dramatic weather and poor harvests, the peasants were suffering to survive day-to-day life in France. Citizens of the taxes collected by the poorest in French society under the ancien régime was by! Monarchy and the role of the French Revolution of 1789 was inarguably a significant turning point in the monarchical.... The crisis and who to tax a series of poor harvests in 1787 and 1788 with winters. 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