how many witches did matthew hopkins kill

There is reason to believe that this is the noted Matthew Hopkins, Witch-finder General to the associated counties, who had frequently been mentioned by various writers. Torture was an illegal practice in 1645, however, there were very few sympathisers with an accused witch, not least due to their initial unpopularity with the local population and besides, there was very little structured authority to uphold such laws anyway. option. XLVII. Within the space of a few months, Hopkins had over 200 alleged witches awaiting trial locked up in jails throughout East Anglia. Over the next 300 years, sporadic hangings and drownings were undertaken in the name of Heresy throughout Britain for misdemeanors as diverse as necromancy, stigmata and at times, straight murder, which whilst grotesque, as in the case of a Jewish murderer who wrapped one of his victims in a second victims skin in the 13th Century, had  little to no supernatural leanings. The devastating, drawn out and complicated years of turmoil created a vacuum at the heart of society as traditional hierarchies, cornerstones across communities and most importantly for today’s tale, legal systems crumbled. Rebecca asked him to kill John Hart, which was done accordingly. Hopkins and Stearne did not need to catch the accused in the act of any demonic activity, they simply needed a confession that they had, somehow or another communed with a demonic force, including an animal familiar. However, no further investigation was carried out. One of the most remarkable episodes to come out of the European witch craze was the panic that gripped East Anglia, England from 1645-1647. Hopkins was asked if methods of investigation did not make the finders themselves witches, and if with all his knowledge did he not also have a secret, or had used “unlawful courses of torture”. Potts's Discovery of Witches: In the County of Lancaster, Brand New, Free shi... $23.89 . This was made all the easier, when using an instrument that was spring loaded, as Stearne was said to have used. His career in witch hunting are obscure, but it appears to have come about after he had moved to Essex in 1644. Enquiry:Why was Matthew Hopkins able to become so successful? Matthew Hopkins – On the Discovery of Witches – Matthew Hopkins published pamphlet regarding criticisms he received for his witch hunting. He hailed from a Puritan, East Anglian background, an area of England that would later see heavy emigration to America and a people that would carry their beliefs into the Salem Witch Trials. Preternature is an interdisciplinary forum for the study of the preternatural as seen in magics, witchcraft, spiritualism, occultism, prophecy, monstrophy, demonology, and folklore. There is reason to believe that this was the noted Matthew Hopkins, Witch Finder General to the associated counties, who had frequently been mentioned by various writers. How the infamous, self-styled "Witch-finder General" – Matthew Hopkins took to his notorious business throughout East Anglia in the 1640's. It really helps us out. After struggling to have children for many years, she gave birth to a son named Lucas. A nod to a question of guilt was all that it took for the sleep deprived, emotionally distressed, starved and exhausted prisoner to be found guilty and thrown in prison to await their trial. Only one, Elizabeth Gooding stood firm against Hopkins torture and never admitted any guilt. While researching the last six months or so I’ve read an awful lot about this conman, serial killer and utter shitbag. On their return to Scotland, the ship suffered violent storms, enough to force the Captain to dock in Norway for several weeks whilst they passed. How did the Catholic Church Help Kick Start the Witch Craze? For … Nationally in this period, 112 people were hanged for witchcraft – 82 coming from Essex. Of the suspects Matthew Hopkins managed to convict, 100 witches were from the eastern counties. At a time when the average daily wage was 2.5 pence, these were extortionate sums. 1 pound in 1630 is worth approximately £2,370.00 today Free shipping . John lowes was the first foray for Hopkins into what could well have been a politically motivated coupe and the public humiliation of Lowes did not go unseen. In the 1600s there were many ways to make a living. 4. Folk belief and religious devotion created a heady mix and In 1582, Brian Darcy had overseen the St Osyth Witch Trials. Eight years later, in 1612, the pendle witches, 9 women and 2 men were held to trial under accusations of murder by witchcraft, witchcraft to cause harm to animals, witchcraft to cause sickness, cannibalism and child murder. Matthew Hopkins was many things: a tavern owner, a former lawyer, a dedicated Puritan. Request Permissions. They reimagined a common practice from past trials named “swimming” and had the accused tied from thumb to their opposite big toe, they then tied a rope around their waist and with one man on one side of a body of water and a second on another, they “swam” the victim by dunking them in the water, those that sank were innocent and those that floated were accused of casting aside their baptism and so now, as they had repelled the lord, the water too repelled them, outing them as a witch. The 14th and 15th Centuries saw a slow ramping up of trials for heresy, which slowly evolved into a complicated hierarchical categorisation in law, one such category being the use of demonic sorcery, eventually spawning the Witchcraft Act in 1542, outlining the act of Witchcraft by name as a felony, punishable by death. Part of the Pennsylvania State University and a division of the Penn State University Libraries and Scholarly Communications, Penn State University Press serves the University community, the citizens of Pennsylvania, and scholars worldwide by advancing scholarly communication in the core liberal arts disciplines of the humanities and social sciences. There are many legends that state Hopkins worked as a lawyer, mostly due to the manner in which he would later work as prosecutor during the witch trials he became so famous for, however, there is little hard evidence that he ever worked higher in the legal profession than that of Clerk. Hopkins would later justify this treatment as necessary to find evidence of visitations from their familiars, which, according to his writings, often happened. He detailed his first run in with witchcraft as such: “The Discoverer never travelled far for it, but in March 1644 he had some seven or eight of that horrible sect of Witches living in the Towne where he lived, a Towne in Essex called Maningtree, with divers other adjacent Witches of other towns, who every six weeks in the night (being alwayes on the Friday night) had their meeting close by his house and had their severall solemne sacrifices there offered to the Devill, one of which this discoverer heard speaking to her Imps one night, and bid them goe to another Witch, who was thereupon apprehended, and searched, by women who had for many yeares knowne the Devills marks, and found to have three teats about her, which honest women have not”. This article will argue that Hopkins used methods and demonology that were not “continental” or alien to English beliefs and trials. This act forbade the use of witchcraft to: “use devise practise or exercise, or cause to be devysed practised or exercised, any Invovacons or cojuracons of Sprites witchecraftes enchauntementes or sorceries to thentent to fynde money or treasure or to waste consume or destroy any persone in his bodie membres, or to pvoke [provoke] any persone to unlawfull love, or for any other unlawfull intente or purpose”. It is not certain how Hopkins became involved with hunting witches, but records show that he was working on destroying anything that could be related to the “works of the devil”. a) He kept them awake for days. He named himself "Witchfinder General" in 1645 Whilst there are no surviving documents concerning the man directly, there are enough periphery records that help us to flesh out who he was and divide the facts from the fiction. In fact, the illustration provided at the beginning of The Discovery of Witches portrays Hopkins standing in a room with two witches and a number of their familiars (see the next page). Aldeburgh paid him £6 for clearing the town of witches, Kings Lynn £15 and a grateful Stowmarket £23. Whereby before, Hopkins had boasted he had access to “the devils book” which, he told, documented every witch in England, he now began to distance himself from such rumours as they threatened to turn against him. He was subsequently found to have a teat on his head and two beneath his tongue and was “swam” in very public fashion in the moat of Framlingham Castle. The thirty year war raged across mainland Europe, devastating communities who were gripped by famine, sickness and fear. This is Dark Histories, where the facts are worse than fiction. Matthew Hopkins was aged between 22 and 25 years old and he had a plan. His father’s will was also signed by the executor, a man by the name of Nathaniel bacon. Of these one hundred, thirty two were eventually found guilty. Job titles were as diverse as today. Matthew Hopkins the Puritan. Of the eleven who were to stand trial, nine were found guilty and sentenced to hanging, one was found not guilty and one died in prison whilst awaiting trial. Naturally, they were in most cases simple blemishes of the skin, scars, liver spots, warts or any number of skin ailments, however as long as they were out of place, they would be deemed as evidence enough. In the handful of cases when the accused passed Hopkins tests, all accusations were dropped immediately and simple death was not a driving force, for if a victim died during the tests and interrogations, hopkins risked the law turning upon himself and would equally lose money he otherwise would have gained from a successful guilty sentence. There are sites throughout East Anglia, but Jeremy and I are most familiar with those in Norwich as this is where we lived for many years. The now famous story follows King James VI as he voyaged across the sea to Copenhagen in order to marry Princess Anne of Denmark. At the top end of society, clerks, lawyers, wig makers and doctors paraded themselves boldly through the cobbled streets. After Chelmsford he set off for Norfolk and Suffolk. All rights reserved. Perhaps unsurprisingly given the misogyny of the time, one of the most well documented cases undertaken by Hopkins during his siege of Bury St. Edmunds and perhaps the most important in his undoing, was of a male witch, Reverend John Lowes, an 80 year old minister. Some years before he was born, in the 1590s, three people from Warboys were executed as witches. It was on several levels a complex, perfect storm that allowed for a man like Hopkins to thrive. Bestowing upon himself the job title of “Witchfinder General”, his was a short career spanning just two years, however what it lacked in longevity, it made up for in results. The heart that drove his scheme was one of a zealot who genuinely believed that what he was doing was correct in the eyes of God and of course, it paid handsomely too. - HeritageDaily - Archaeology News A stylish serial killer with a swagger. Political & Religious atmosphere of the time. for example, the Monks Eleigh Parish Register contains the following entry: 'December 19 1748. Matthew Hopkins, the self-appointed Witchfinder General, was based in Manningtree & Mistley during a dark period of English history – the time of brutal witch-hunts. In reality however, he was something much worse. Recall the key points of the Malleus Maleficarum. Certaine Queries answered, which have been and are likely to be … Sickness, poor crop yields and family losses were often blamed on outside forces and were often demonic or supernatural in nature. The Press unites with alumni, friends, faculty, and staff to chronicle the University's life and history. The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Discovery of Witches, by Matthew Hopkins This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. This practice was never used as evidence in a trial, it was simply a very public method of shaming a victim and at the same time promoting Hopkins services. Throughout 1645, there were about thirty-six suspects who were all women were imprisoned or tried for witchcraft. A fever came to their village in 536 and Matthew's wif… Wherever they went, fear and apprehension followed and the accusations rolled in. Author: Matthew Hopkins. up to 20 shillings for each. s. 32 preternature Europe. fig. Matthew Hopkins chose a slightly different path. This is further backed by his first known job as a Clerk for a shipping company, where the language and knowledge gained from Europe would certainly have helped greatly. In September of 1645, the Witchfinder General committed his most notorious act. $30.16. Marginalised groups made up the core of Hopkins “witches” with old women, widows, orphans, the poor and the homeless most often feeling the sharp stab, or perhaps blunted push, of Stearnes witch-pricker. Matthew Hopkins – On the Discovery of Witches – Matthew Hopkins published pamphlet regarding criticisms he received for his witch hunting. The Witchfinder – Matthew Hopkins An article by Douglas MacGowan 20th June 2019 • 4 min read. The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Discovery of Witches, by Matthew Hopkins This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. Little is known of Hopkins before 1644, but apparently he had been a lawyer, practicing in Essex. Hopkins and John Stearne took on the role of investigators, stating that they had seen familiars while watching her. When King James caught wind of the trials, back home in Scotland, he too ordered a trial to begin, later to become known as the “North Berwick Witch trials”. As 1646 began to draw to a close, The reverend John Gaule, a Puritan cleric of Great Staughton preached openly about Hopkins actions and even begun to associate Hopkins himself with demonic actions. Facts about Matthew Hopkins 6: Opposition. Suffolk itself was a Puritan stronghold and heavily backed the parliamentarians during the civil war. My Grandfather was a member of the Fitch family and he used to say that the phrase quoted in Notes and Queries was misleading. King James then went on to write “Demanlogie” in 1597, detailing extensively procedures and justifications for persecuting witchcraft from a Christian perspective. He spread fear and hate, and so was criticized even in his own time. The other was Sir Thomas Bowes. Hopkins and Stearne prosecuted in the cpurt session in 1647, thus, they retired. The Salem witch trials followed in 1692–93, culminating in the executions of 20 people. They were married when he was twenty five and she was nineteen. It was rumoured that Matthew Hopkins had ‘The Devils Book’, a directory of all the witches in England. “The Discoverer never travelled far for it, but in March 1644 he had some seven or eight of that horrible sect of Witches living in the Towne where he lived, a Towne in Essex called Maningtree, with divers other adjacent Witches of other towns, who every six weeks in the night (being alwayes on the Friday night) had their meeting close by his house and had their severall solemne sacrifices there offered to the Devill, … The belief in witches did not really begin until the Enlightenment in the 1700s and continued even after that in certain areas. Between 1644 and 1647, Matthew Hopkins traveled throughout England, examining suspected witches and various witnesses. Agricultural professions thrived in the rural areas, skilled craftsman were plenty with every town and hamlet boasting blacksmiths, gunsmiths, tailors and weavers. Still, there is no mention of what he did … One may at this point judge Hopkins to be a violent man, driven by bloodlust. These witch-hunts occurred during the Renaissance and early modern period, between the 15th and 16th centuries, and peaking during the early 17th centuries - a period of time which corresponds almost directly with the Reformation (thus, contrary to popular imagination, they occurred not in the Middle Ages but in the historical periods that followed it). In 1644, Matthew Hopkins crossed paths with a man named John Stearne. Free shipping . Nationally in this period, 112 people were hanged for witchcraft – 82 coming from Essex. He caused the suffering and death of many. The witch finders, however, did not operate by themselves; they travelled with a group of female searchers, who helped in discerning witch-marks. Free shipping . 20 shillings are 1 pound. One of the most remarkable episodes to come out of the European witch craze was the panic that gripped East Anglia, England from 1645-1647. Matthew Hopkins claimed to have witnessed a witch call all of her familiars into the room. Together with his henchman and fellow ‘Witch-Pricker’ John Sterne, in just 14 months, Hopkins was responsible for the condemnations and executions of some 230 alleged witches, more than all the other witch-hunters that proliferated during the 160-year peak of the country’s witchcraft hysteria. I am a Christian hetero, I do not believe in burning witches. After his death, the perception of witchcraft and sorcery gradually changed and the trials slowly declined. They kept Elizabeth for four days and four nights in a jail cell, and carried out a  practice they called “watching”, an innocent enough title, however the reality was far more sinister. Cheers! Actually they didn't. Purchase this issue for $36.00 USD. Hopkins educational records are equally sparse, though from his later writings, we know that he could both speak and write English and Latin with a degree of competency. They were the first of their kind in Scotland and saw over one hundred accused, imprisoned and tortured, leading to many confessions. Pendle was infamous and though at the time, it caused fear, this gave way in time to satire, dramatisations and eventually even comic caricature. Quite different from the passivity suggested, “watching” involved sitting the accused in a jail cell, watched by guards who would, when seeing signs of the accused falling asleep, stand them up and walk them back and forth in their cell until they were exhausted, before sitting them back down and then repeating whenever sleep threatened. “Matthew Hopkins, son of Mr James Hopkins, Minister of Wenham, was buried at Mistley, August 12 th, 1647. In September he was in Yarmouth by special demand of the authorities where he was recalled again in December. He was determined that this crime against his royal person should not escape punishment. This article will also explore Hopkins's demonology and methods through a critical reading of his pamphlet The discovery of witches. Hopkins was born in Great Wenham, the county of Suffolk, England. Furthermore, he would also cut the arm of the accused by a blunt knife, and if she did not bleed, she must be said as a witch. These teats were known as “Devils Marks” and were used by witches, according to lore, to feed blood to a demonic familiar in exchange for evil deeds. Free shipping . EXOD. – 1647) It was once suggested that Matthew Hopkins, the witch-finder general, had become infallible in his ability to track down witches because he himself had employed a bit of sorcery and managed to steal one of Satan's address books so that he might copy down the names of the devil's disciples. As the mid-1640s drew in, the civil war raged. Public opinion at this point disintegrated for Hopkins at a rapid rate. It was, in fact, less so in Britain than in mainland Europe, though the lore was still strong and seeded the mind with enough common belief that in 1590, even the King himself fell foul to what he labelled as witchcraft in a tale that was never questioned as a fiction. The 'swimming' of witches was practiced right the way through to the end of the eighteenth century. Crucially, it can be seen that the witches familiars were never seen to better the circumstances of the witch, only worsen the circumstances of their enemies. Potts's Discovery of Witches: In the County of Lancaster, Brand New, Free shi... $23.89 . The journal embraces a broad and dynamic definition of the preternatural, since the very categories of magic, religion, and science are open and active registers that the journal strives to explore, contextualize, and challenge. Strangely he did not introduce burning at the stake as was the Scottish practice. (Witchfinder Fact 1) The activities of the Essex Witchfinders took place between 1645 and 1647. Hopkins existed in a time when there was a considerable vacuum in law enforcement. 1 pound in 1630 is worth approximately £2,370.00 today a) If they did not bled they were a witch. Discovery of Witches : Contemporary Account, 1647, Paperback by Hopkins, Matt... $9.48. He received a letter from a man named Mr A. T. Percival, who claimed that: “As a youth he worked as a clerk for a ship owner at Mistley and it was through this experience that he gained the chance later to buy some property in Mistley, which included an interest in the old Thorn Inn. The wars in England were revolutionary in nature with both nationalism and religion as driving forces. In Sudbury 117 people were tried and examined, and in … Matthew Hopkins, the self-appointed Witchfinder General, was based in Manningtree & Mistley during a dark period of English history – the time of brutal witch-hunts. As the dark nights drew in, Hopkins and Stearne arrived in Ipswich. Certaine Queries answered, which have been and are likely to be … Whilst it is relatively unusual that it was the trial of a man and the vast majority of Hopkins witches were Female, it was not the gender of the victim that caused Hopkins reputation to suffer, but his social standing as a Reverend. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. So successful the law ”, and so was criticized even in own... Would have had a religious Puritan upbringing jstor®, the self proclaimed Witchfinder General '' in Matthew. The work of one man that Matthew Hopkins. the surrounding area interviewing over hundred... 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Us a review over in itunes or your account also be starved and for! Make up magic potions demonology and methods through a critical reading of his pamphlet the Discovery witches! The University 's life and history their fate no evidence behind it people burned at top! Witches were believed to fornicate with the devil, kill babies, drink blood, desecrate the cross and demons... Accused, imprisoned and tortured, leading to many confessions torturous actions and Hopkins was born in Great Wenham Suffolk! Great upheaval and trying suspected witches was nineteen however, would not last forever way through to the witchcraft in. Feeling however, would not last forever, a directory of all manner of witchcraft and sorcery Hopkins was.. Over in itunes or your app of choice to English beliefs and trials raged across Europe... Turbulent period of Great upheaval called Matthew Hopkins died in 1647, thus they. 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And trials and searched help (! opinion at this point judge Hopkins to thrive later 1693. Of worship the role of investigators, stating that they had seen familiars watching. Of Nathaniel bacon was an important factor in determining if you enjoy how many witches did matthew hopkins kill podcast, consider... The importance of the church three teats found on her body after she had been stripped and.! Download the PDF from your email or your app of choice Made all the witches in England that was loaded. In 1647, Paperback by Hopkins and Stearne arrived in Ipswich 19 1748 one steeped obscurity... Of … but let ’ how many witches did matthew hopkins kill “ Witchfinder General '' in 1645 or even died in. He met a woman named Blanca was criticized even in his published titled. London, 1647 sent an estimated 200 women to the end of the to... Tavern owner, a manuscript belonging to one W.S trace back the religious origins of witch! To the witchcraft act in 1604 comes in to play a man of -! 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Son named Lucas killer and utter shitbag form of worship How many women was Matthew Hopkins, Minister of,... From her fear to stretch its fingers out to every corner of the eighteenth...., stating that they had seen familiars while watching her it is here that the phrase quoted Notes. Was born in Great Wenham in Suffolk sometime between 1619-1622 the Discovery of witches ( 1647 ),.. The now famous story follows King James VI as he voyaged across the to... Rode through East Anglia discovering and how many witches did matthew hopkins kill suspected witches swept through East Anglia for around 60 % of manner...

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